THE VALUE OF KNOWING CHURCH HISTORY
A. CHURCH HISTORY CAUSES US TO APPRECIATE OUR RELIGIOUS HERITAGE.
We are made to realize the things that the things we count most precious come to us through great suffering and sacrifice on the part of our religious ancestors.
B. CHURCH HISTORY GIVES US AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE PRESENT.
We see the origins and the roots of our present religious denominations, religious institutions, religious orders, religious ceremonies, rituals, and religious creeds.
C. CHURCH HISTORY EQUIPS US TO BE BETTER RELIGIOUS TEACHERS.
We are given much material to illustrate our sermons and other religious teachings.
D. CHURCH HISTORY MAKES US APPRECIATE THE FAITHFULNESS OF CHRIST.
We are made to see that the church has survived in the midst of terrible opposition and persecutions because Christ has been faithful to the promises made in Matthew 16:18 and Matt. 28:20
E. CHURCH HISTORY GIVES US HOPE IN THE MIDST OF OUR CHURCH PROBLEMS.
We see that our present church problems are not new. The church has faced, solved, and survived similar problems in the past.
F. CHURCH HISTORY CHALLENGES US TO BE BETTER CHRISTIANS.
We learn of the dedication, the selflessness, and the labors of Christians in past centuries and we are challenged to give ourselves more fully to Christ.
Value Of Knowing Church History
1. How does knowing church history give us hope when dealing with the problems we face today?
2. How does knowing church history make us better preachers and bible teachers?
3. How does knowing church history help us understand the present?
4. What does church history teach about the church surviving under terrible oppression?
5. Knowing church history challenges us to be better at what?
6. What does knowing church history teach us about the sacrifices made by our religious ancestors?
PREPARATION OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH
PART ONE – THE PREPARATION PERIOD
(from the closing of the Old Testament to the founding of the Church), 400 B.C. – A.D. 30
THE PREPARATION FOR THE CHURCH
After the days of Malachi, God began to make definite preparation for the advent of Christ, the gospel, and the church. God worked through the Greeks, the Romans, and the Jews in making this preparation. Mark 1:15 and Gal. 4:4 speak of the fulfillment of these days of preparation.
A. THE GREEK PREPARATION
Pagan philosophy – Greek philosophy destroyed peoples’ belief in the pagan gods of polytheism and left a spiritual and moral hunger in many hearts, which hunger was not satisfied by the pagan philosophies of Greece, the mystery religions of the Orient, or the Judaism of the Jews. The Mediterranean world was ready for the gospel when it came.
A universal language – The Greek language was spread throughout the Mediterranean world by Alexander the Great, 335-323 B.C., making it “the lingua franca” of this region. What a boon was a universal language to the rapid spread of the gospel!
B. THE ROMAN PREPARATION
A universal empire (with a common language, common citizenship, a common legal system, a common coinage, etc.)
A universal road system (radiating out from Rome to the various parts of the empire)
A universal peace (known as “The Pax Romana”, the Roman peace, which began shortly before the birth of the church and continued on until around A.D.180
THE JEWISH PREPARATION
The spread of the concept of monotheism
The spread of the teachings of the Ten Commandment
The spread of the hope of a coming Messiah
The spread of the Greek Septuagint Version of the Old Testament
THE FOUNDER OF THE CHURCH – JESUS CHRIST
A. THE IMPORTANCE OF CHRIST TO THE CHURCH
The church could not exist apart from Christ. He is its founder, its sustainer, and its perfecter. Other institutions may exist apart from their founder, but this is not true of the church.
B.THE RELATIONSHIP OF CHRIST TO THE CHURCH
He is the Shepherd, we are the sheep (John 10:14-16)
He is the Vine, we are the branches (John 15:5)
He is the Chief Corner-stone, we are the stones of the building (I Peter 2:4-6)
He is the Husband, we are the wife ( Eph. 5:22-33)
He is the High Priest, we are the under-priest (Heb. 3:1; I Peter 2:5)
He is the Head, we are the body (Eph. 5:23)
He is the Last Adam, we are the new creation (I Cor. 15:45; II Cor. 5:17)
THE PREPARATION OF CHRIST FOR THE CHURCH
He revealed the coming church (Matt. 16:18)
After He had for around three years offered the Old Testament Prophetic Kingdom to Israel, Christ at Caesarea Philippi made His first announcement concerning the coming church.
He trained the leaders of the coming Church (Mark 3:13-19)
The training of the Twelve was one of the most important aspects of Christ’s ministry.
He prayed for the coming church (John chapter 17)
He prayed for the sanctification of the church.
He died for the coming church (Acts 20:28; Eph. 5:25; I Peter 1:18,19)
Christ died for all men but He in a special sense died for the church.
THE PROMISES OF CHRIST TO THE CHURCH
He Promised that He would send the Holy Spirit to the church (John 14:16; 16:17)
The Holy Spirit would do three things for the apostles: (1) guide them into all truth, John 16:13; (2) bring to their remembrance all things spoken unto them, John 14:26; and (3) show them things to come, John 16:13. He would do four things for all believers: (1) spiritually baptize them, I Cor. 12:13; (2) permanently indwell them, John 14:16; (3) repeatedly refill them, Eph. 5:18; and (4) permanently seal them, Eph. 1:13, 14. He would do three things for the whole church: (1) empower the church, Acts 1:8; (2) witness through the church, John 15:26; and (3) hold back the manifestation of the man of sin through the church, II Thes.2:7.
He promised direct access to the Father for the church (John 16:23-27) This access guarantees the supply of the church’s needs.
He promised that He Himself would be with the church (Matt. 28:19,20)
Christ promised to be with the church in its fulfillment of the Great Commission.
He promised to come for the church (John 14:1-3) The church has ever-looked for the fulfillment of this promise.
He promised to keep the church from the Great Tribulation (Rev. 3:10)
PREPARATION OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH HISTORY
1. What did God do after the days of Malachi?
2. Why was the Mediterranean world ready for the gospel when it came?
3. How did the “Pax Romana” aid in the preparation for the advent of the church?
4. How did Judaism aid in the preparation of the spreading gospel?
5. Other institutions may exist apart from their founder but why is this not the same for the church?
6. Other than the Last Adam what else is Christ’s relationship to the church?
7. Other than praying for the sanctification of the church what other things were done to prepare Christ for the church?
8. What three things would the promised Holy Spirit do for the church?
9. He promised direct access to the Father for the church and what else?
THE FIRST-CENTURY CHURCH
The seventy years of Christian growth from Christ’s ascension to the death of the last apostle may be divided into three periods.
Period of local witnessing (30-45)
Fifty days after the resurrection, the Holy Spirit was given in accordance with Jesus’ promise, providing divine power for witnessing in a hostile world, bringing the presence of Christ for fellowship and strength, and empowering leaders to begin important movements (see Acts 1-12).
At Pentecost persons from every part of the known world were saved, and they returned to their own cities to establish Christian churches. Persecution, poverty, and internal bickering were only temporary hurdles (see Acts 3-6).
The Martyrdom of Stephen marked a turning point in two respects: (1) it began the persecution that drove witnessing Christians from Jerusalem into all Judea and Samaria, and (2) it moved Saul the persecutor toward personal conversion to Christ. The local witness grew because of Peter’s preaching to a Gentile (for which he was required to give an explanation to the church at Jerusalem), the founding of the Gentile church at Antioch, and the martyrdom of James, son of Zebedee. Saul’s conversion, his preparation for service, and his ministry at Antioch provide the background for service, and his ministry at Antioch provides the background for the second stage of Christian development.
Period of missionary expansion (45-68)
Under the leadership of the Holy Spirit, a new direction of witnessing was begun with Paul’s three missionary journeys between the years 45 and 58, when he was seized in the temple at Jerusalem. During these thirteen years, he wrote two letters to the church at Thessalonica, at least two to the Corinthians, one to the Galatians, and one to the Romans. After his imprisonment in Rome about AD 61 he wrote the letters known as Philemon, Colossians, Ephesians, and Philippians. He probably was released for four or five years, but the extent of his travel during this time is unknown. He wrote the letters known as 1 Timothy and Titus in this interim. He may have gone as far west as Spain or even Britain on one journey. He was imprisoned again about AD 67 in Rome. Just before his death at the hands of Nero, he wrote 2 Timothy.
Although the earliest Christians were Jews, soon most new converts were Gentiles, and a central theme of the doctrinal discussion was how to reach and integrate Gentiles into Christian churches. This was a constant theme of Paul’s letters.
Writings of Christians several centuries later may be correct in speaking of extensive missionary activity by other apostles, but these accounts are too meager to be of much value. Churches were established through Paul’s efforts in some of the empire’s largest cities. Between the first and second missionary journeys, Paul and Silas attended a conference at Jerusalem (about AD 50) to discuss whether persons must become Jews before they could become Christians. James, the brother of Jesus, presided at the meeting. After some people, including the apostle Peter, had spoken, the group agreed that any Gentile could find salvation by simple faith in Christ without going through Judaism.
During this period, which closes with the death of the apostle Paul in Rome in AD 68, nine other New Testament books were written- James, Mark, Matthew, Luke, Acts, I Peter, Jude, 2 Peter, and Hebrews, perhaps in that order.
Period of westward growth (68-100)
The New Testament describes Christianity’s spread from Jerusalem to Antioch and to the Gentile cities of the eastern Mediterranean. A Jewish revolt broke out in Palestine about 66, but a Roman army under Titus suppressed the revolt by destroying Jerusalem and Herod’s Temple in 70. The sacrifices ceased, and the synagogue has been the center of Jewish worship ever since. The priesthood, the Sadducees, the Essenes, and many other aspects of the Judaism of Jesus’ day disappeared. Jerusalem ceased to be the center of Judaism until recent times.
The Jerusalem church was also scattered in 70, and the gospel spread westward throughout the Roman Empire. The New Testament does not describe exactly how the gospel reached urban centers such as Alexandria and Carthage. When Paul reached Rome, a Christian church already existed there, but how it began is unknown.
Extant second-century writings explain that the apostle John spent his old age in Ephesus, where he wrote the five New Testament books attributed to him. These books contain warnings against diluting Christianity and minimizing either humanity or the deity of Christ. The advocates of these views cannot be identified, but their presence is significant because these same doctrinal aberrations appeared in the second century.
Severe persecution occurred under the Roman Emperor Domitian (81-96). Apparently, John was imprisoned on Patmos, where he wrote the book of Revelation, defying Rome’s attempt to impose emperor worship on Christians.
The literature that became the New Testament canon had not as yet been brought together in one book. The various churches used the Old Testament, together with those Christian writings they might possess. At the close of the century, the Christian movement was thriving-firm in doctrine and growing in numbers.
THE FIRST-CENTURY CHURCH
1. What happened fifty days after the resurrection?
2. At Pentecost persons from every part of the known world were saved and did what when they returned home?
3. The Martyrdom of Stephen marked a turning point in two respects what are they?
4. Under the leadership of the Holy Spirit a new direction of witnessing was begun with who?
5. Between the years 45 and 58 during those thirteen years what New Testament books were written?
6. What was a constant theme of Paul’s letters to the gentile churches?
7. Paul and Silas attended a conference in Jerusalem about AD 50 about what?
8. Which period closes with the death of Paul?
9. Why did the priesthood, the Sadducees, the Essenes, and many other aspects of the Judaism of Jesus’ day disappear?
10. What happened to the Jerusalem church and how did the gospel reach the urban centers such as Alexandria and Carthage?
11. What did extant second-century writings explain about the apostle John?
At the close of the book of Malachi in the Old Testament, the nation of Israel is back again in the land of Palestine after the Babylonian captivity, but they are under the domination of the great world power of that day, Persia and the Medio-Persian empire. In Jerusalem, the temple had been restored, although it was a much smaller building than the one that Solomon had built and decorated in such marvelous glory. Within the temple, the line of Aaronic priests was still worshiping and carrying on the sacred rites as they had been ordered to do by the law of Moses. There was a direct line of descendancy in the priesthood that could be traced back to Aaron.
But the royal line of David had fallen on evil days. The people knew who the rightful successor to David was, and in the book of Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, his name is given to us. It was Zerubbabel, the royal prince, yet there was no king on the throne of Israel, they were a puppet nation, under the domination of Persia. Nevertheless, although they were beset with weakness and formalism as the prophets have shown us, the people were united. There were no political schisms or factions among them, nor were they divided into groups or parties. Now when you open the New Testament to the book of Matthew, you discover an entirely different atmosphere — almost a different world. Rome is now the dominant power on the earth. The Roman legions have spread throughout the length and breadth of the civilized world. The center of power has shifted from the East to the West, to Rome. Palestine is still a puppet state — the Jews never did regain their own sovereignty — but now there is a king on the throne. But this king is the descendant of Esau instead of Jacob, and his name is Herod the Great. Furthermore, the high priests who now sit in the seat of religious authority in the nation are no longer from the line of Aaron. They cannot trace their descendancy back, rather, they are hired priests to whom the office is sold as political patronage.
The temple is still the center of Jewish worship, although the building has been partially destroyed and rebuilt about a half-dozen times since the close of the Old Testament. But now the synagogues that have sprung up in every Jewish city seem to be the center of Jewish life even more than the temple.
At this time the people of Israel were split into three major parties. Two of them, the Pharisees and Sadducees, were much more prominent than the third. The smaller group, the Essenes, could hardly be designated as a party. Not long ago, however, they came into great prominence in our time and took on new significance because they had stowed away some documents in caves overlooking the Dead Sea — documents which were brought to light again by the accidental discovery of an Arab shepherd boy and are known as the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Now, what happened in these four hundred so-called “silent” years after the last of the inspired prophets spoke and the first of the New Testament writers began to write? You remember there is a word in Paul’s letter to the Galatians that says, “When the time had fully come, God sent forth his Son, born of woman, born under the law.” (Galatians 4:4) In other words, the time of our Lord’s birth was God’s appointed hour, the moment for which God had been long preparing. Some of the exciting preparations took place during that time of “silence,” however, and you will understand your New Testament much better if you understand something of the historic events during the time between the Testaments. After Malachi had ceased his prophesying and the canon of the Old Testament closed — that is, the number of the books in the Old Testament was fulfilled and the inspired prophets ceased to speak — God allowed a period of time for the teachings of the Old Testament to penetrate throughout the world. During this time, he rearranged the scenes of history, much as a stage crew will rearrange the stage sets after the curtain has fallen, and when the curtain rises again there is an entirely new setting.
In about 435 B.C., when the prophet Malachi ceased his writing, the center of world power began to shift from the East to the West. Up to this time, Babylon had been the major world power, but this was soon succeeded by the Medio-Persian empire, as you remember from ancient history. This shift had been predicted by the prophet Daniel, who said that there would rise up a bear who was higher on one side than the other, signifying the division between Media and Persia, with the Persians the predominant ones (Daniel 7:5).
At the height of the Persian power there arose in the country of Macedonia (which we now know as Greece), north of the Aegean Sea, a man by the name of Philip of Macedon, who became a leader in his own country. He united the islands of Greece and became their ruler. His son was destined to become one of the great world leaders of all time, Alexander the Great. In 330 B.C. a tremendous battle between the Persians and the Greeks entirely altered the course of history. In that battle, Alexander, as a young man only twenty years old, led the armies of Greece in victory over the Persians and completely demolished the power of Persia. The center of world power then shifted farther west into Greece, and the Grecian empire was born.
A year after that historic battle, Alexander the Great led his armies down into the Syrian world toward Egypt. On the way, he planned to lay siege to the city of Jerusalem. As the victorious armies of the Greeks approached the city, the word was brought to the Jews in Jerusalem that the armies were on their way. The high priest at that time, who was a godly old man by the name of Jaddua (who, by the way, is mentioned in the Bible in the book of Nehemiah) took the sacred writings of Daniel the prophet and, accompanied by a host of other priests dressed in white garments, went forth and met Alexander some distance outside the city.
All this is from the report of Josephus, the Jewish historian, who tells us that Alexander left his army and hurried to meet this body of priests.
When he met them, he told the high priest that he had had a vision the night before in which God had shown him an old man, robed in a white garment, who would show him something of great significance to himself, according to the account, the high priest then opened the prophecies of Daniel and read them to Alexander.
In the prophecies, Alexander was able to see the predictions that he would become that notable goat with the horn on his forehead, who would come from the West and smash the power of Medio-Persia and conquer the world. He was so overwhelmed by the accuracy of this prophecy and, of course, by the fact that it spoke about him, that he promised that he would save Jerusalem from the siege, and sent the high priest back with honors. How true that account is, is very difficult at this distance in time to say; that, at any event, is the story.
After some time, however, the four generals that had led Alexander’s armies divided his empire between them. Two of them are particularly noteworthy to us. One was Ptolemy, who gained Egypt and the northern African countries; the other was Seleucus, who gained Syria, to the north of Palestine.
During this time Palestine was annexed by Egypt and suffered greatly at the hands of Ptolemy. In fact, for the next one hundred years, Palestine was caught in the meat-grinder of the unending conflicts between Syria on the north and Egypt on the south.
Now if you have read the prophecies of Daniel, you will recall that Daniel was able, by inspiration, to give a very accurate and detailed account of the highlights of these years of conflict between the king of the North (Syria) and the king of the South (Egypt). The eleventh chapter of Daniel gives us a most amazingly accurate account of that which has long since been fulfilled. If you want to see just how accurate the prophecy is, I suggest you compare that chapter of Daniel with the historical record of what actually occurred during that time. H. A. Ironside’s little book, The 400 Silent Years, gathers that up in some detail.
During this time Grecian influence was becoming strong in Palestine. A party arose among the Jews called the Hellenists, who were very eager to bring Grecian culture and thought into the nation and to liberalize some of the Jewish laws. This forced a split into two major parties. There were those who were strong Hebrew nationalists, who wanted to preserve everything according to the Mosaic order. They resisted all the foreign influences that were coming in to disrupt the old Jewish ways. This party became known as the Pharisees, which means “to separate.” They were the separationists who insisted on preserving traditions. They grew stronger and stronger, becoming more legalistic and rigid in their requirements until they became the target for some of the most scorching words our Lord ever spoke.
They had become religious hypocrites, keeping the outward form of the law, but completely violating its spirit.
On the other hand, the Hellenists — the Greek lovers — became more and more influential in the politics of the land. They formed the party that was known in New Testament days as the Sadducees, the liberals. They turned away from the strict interpretation of the law and became the rationalists of their day, ceasing to believe in the supernatural in any way. We are told in the New Testament that they came again and again to the Lord with questions about the supernatural, like “What will happen to a woman who has been married to seven different men? In the resurrection, whose wife will she be?” (Matthew 22:23-33) They did not believe in a resurrection, but in these questions, they were trying to put Jesus on the spot.
Now there was also a young rebel Jewish priest who married a Samaritan, went down to Samaria, and in rebellion against the Jewish laws, built a temple on Mount Gerizim that became a rival of the temple in Jerusalem. This caused an intense, fanatical rivalry between the Jews and the Samaritans, and this rivalry is also reflected in the New Testament.
Also during this time, in Egypt, under the reign of one of the Ptolemies, the Hebrew scriptures were translated for the first time into another language, in about 284 B.C. A group of 70 scholars was called together by the Egyptian king to make a translation of the Hebrew scriptures. Book by book they translated the Old Testament into Greek. When they had finished, it was given the name of the Septuagint, which means 70, because of the number of translators. This became the Greek version of the Hebrew Bible. From it many of the quotations in the New Testament are derived.
That is why New Testament quotations of Old Testament verses are sometimes in different words — because they come from the Greek translation. The Septuagint is still in existence today and is widely used in various parts of the world. It is still a very important document.
A little later on, about 203 B.C., a king named Antiochus the Great came into power in Syria, to the north of Palestine. He captured Jerusalem from the Egyptians and began the reign of Syrian power over Palestine. He had two sons, one of whom succeeded him and reigned only a few years. When he died, his brother took the throne. This man, named Antiochus Epiphanes, became one of the most vicious and violent persecutors of the Jews ever known. In fact, he is often called the Antichrist of the Old Testament, since he fulfills some of the predictions of Daniel concerning the coming of one who would be “a contemptible person” and “a vile king.” His name (which he modestly bestowed upon himself) means “Antiochus the Illustrious.” Nevertheless, some of his own courtiers evidently agreed more with the prophecies of Daniel, and they changed two letters in his title. from Epiphanes to Epipames, which means “the mad man.”
His first act was to depose the high priest in Jerusalem. thus ending the long line of succession, beginning with Aaron and his sons through the many centuries of Jewish life. Onias the Third was the last of the hereditary line of priests. Antiochus Epiphanes sold the priesthood to Jason, who was not of the priestly line. Jason, in turn, was tricked by his younger brother Menelaus, who purchased the priesthood and then sold the golden vessels of the temple in order to make up the tribute money. Epiphanes overthrew the God-authorized line of priests.
Then, under his reign, the city of Jerusalem and all the religious rites of the Jews began to deteriorate as they came fully under the power of the Syrian king.
In 171 B.C. Antiochus invaded Egypt and once again Palestine was caught in the nutcracker of rivalry. Palestine is the most fought-over country in the world, and Jerusalem is the most captured city in all history. It has been pillaged, ravished, burned, and destroyed more than 27 times in its history.
While Antiochus was in Egypt, it was reported that he had been killed in battle, and Jerusalem rejoiced. The people organized a revolt and overthrew Menelaus, the pseudo-priest. When the report reached Antiochus (who was very much alive in Egypt) that Jerusalem was delighted at the report of his death, he organized his armies and swept like a fury back across the land, falling upon Jerusalem with terrible vengeance.
He overturned the city, regained his power, and guided by the treacherous Menelaus, intruded into the very Holy of Holies in the temple itself. Some 40,000 people were slain in three days of fighting during this terrible time. When he forced his way into the Holy of Holies, he destroyed the scrolls of the law and, to the absolute horror of the Jews, took a sow and offered it upon the sacred altar. Then with a broth made from the flesh of this unclean animal, he sprinkled everything in the temple, thus completely defiling and violating the sanctuary. It is impossible for us to grasp how horrifying this was to the Jews. They were simply appalled that anything like this could ever happen to their sacred temple.
It was that act of defiling the temple which is referred to by the Lord Jesus as the “desolating sacrilege” which Daniel had predicted (Matthew. 24:15), and which also became a sign of the coming desolation of the temple when Antichrist himself will enter the temple, call himself God, and thus defile the temple in that time. As we know from the New Testament, that still lies in the future.
Daniel the prophet had said the sanctuary would be polluted for 2300 days. (Daniel 8:14) In exact accordance with that prophecy, it was exactly 2300 days — six and a half years — before the temple was cleansed. It was cleansed under the leadership of a man now famous in Jewish history, Judas Maccabaeus. He was one of the priestly lines who, with his father and four brothers, rose up in revolt against the Syrian king. They captured the attention of the Israelites, summoned them to follow them into battle, and in a series of pitched battles in which they were always an overwhelming minority, overthrew the power of the Syrian kings, captured Jerusalem, and cleansed the temple. The day they cleansed the temple was named the Day of Dedication, and it occurred on the 25th day of December. On that date Jews still celebrate the Feast of Dedication each year.
The Maccabees, who were of the Asmonean family, began a line of high priests known as the Asmonean Dynasty. Their sons, for about the next three or four generations, ruled as priests in Jerusalem, all the time having to defend themselves against the constant assaults of the Syrian army who tried to recapture the city and the temple. During the days of the Maccabbees, there was a temporary overthrow of foreign domination, which is why the Jews look back to this time and regard it with such tremendous veneration.
During this time, one of the Asmonean priests made a league with the rising power in the West, Rome. He signed a treaty with the Senate of Rome, providing for help in the event of a Syrian attack. Though the treaty was made in all earnestness and sincerity, it was this pact that introduced Rome into the picture and history of Israel.
As the battles between the two opposing forces waged hotter and hotter, Rome was watchful. Finally, the Governor of Idumea, a man named Antipater and a descendant of Esau, made a pact with two other neighboring kings and attacked Jerusalem to try to overthrow the authority of the Asmonean high priest. This battle raged so fiercely that finally Pompey, the Roman general, who happened to have an army in Damascus at the time, was sought by both parties to come and intervene. One side had a little more money than the other and persuaded by that logical argument, Pompey came down from Damascus, entered the city of Jerusalem — again with terrible slaughter — overthrew the city, and captured it for Rome. That was in 63 B.C. From that time on, Palestine was under the authority and power of Rome.
Now Pompey and the Roman Senate appointed Antipater as the Procurator of Judea, and he in turn made his two sons kings of Galilee and Judea. The son who became king of Judea is known to us as Herod the Great. (“Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, behold, wise men from the East came to Jerusalem saying, ‘Where is he who has been born king of the Jews?'” (Matthew 2:1, 2)
Meanwhile, the pagan empires around had been deteriorating and disintegrating. Their religions had fallen upon evil days. The people were sick of the polytheism and emptiness of their pagan faiths. The Jews had gone through times of pressure and had failed in their efforts to re-establish themselves, and had given up all hope. There was a growing air of expectancy that the only hope they had left was the coming at last of the promised Messiah.